Hongbin LIU
PhD University of Hawaii at Manoa

Email: liuhb@ust.hk

Phone: (852) 2358 7341 (office), (852) 2358 7347 (lab)

Research Laboratory Website : plankton-lab.ust.hk

Research Interests
Currently, my lab is conducting research to understand the factors that control microbial (with the emphasis of picoplankton and bacterioplankton) biomass, diversity, growth, mortality and physiological status in a variety of aquatic ecosystems. We focus on the Hong Kong coastal waters and the South China Sea, but also other parts of the world oceans through collaborations with scientists from China and around the world. We are also conducting researches addressing the environmental issues, such as harmful algal bloom and hypoxia in Hong Kong coastal waters.


Ng, W. H. A., Liu, H. (2015) Diel variation of cellular carbon to nitrogen ratio for Chlorella sp. growing in phosphorus and nitrogen limited continuous cultures. J. Phycol. 51:82-92. DOI: 10.1111/jpy.12254 
Zhang, S., Liu, H., Chen, B., Wu, C.-J. (2015) Effects of diet nutritional quality on the growth and grazing of Noctiluca scintillans. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 527: 73-85.

Chen, M., Liu, H., Song, S., Sun, J., (2015) Size-fractionated mesozooplankton biomass and grazing impact on phytoplankton in northern South China Sea during four seasons. Deep-Sea Res. II 117:108–118, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.026

Xia, X., Guo, W., Liu, H. (2015) Dynamics of the bacterial and archaeal communities in the Northern South China Sea revealed by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Deep-Sea Res. II 117:97–107

Wong, G.T.F., Ku, T.-L., Liu, H., Mulholland, M. (2015) The oceanography of the Northern south China Sea Shelf-Sea (NoSoCS) and its adjacent Waters—overview and Highlights. Deep-Sea Res. II 117:3–9

Xia, X., Vidyarathna, N.K., Palenik, B., Lee, P., Liu, H. (2015) Comparison of the seasonal variation of Synechococcus assemblage structure in estuarine waters and coastal waters of Hong Kong. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81(21):7644-7655.

Chen, L., Lam, J.C.W., Zhang, X., Pan, K., Guo, C., Lam, P.K.S., Wang, W., Liu, H., Qian, P.-Y. (2015) Relationship between metal and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) body burden and health risks in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Mar. Poll. Bull. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.020

Jing, H., Xia, X., Liu, H., Zhou, Z., Wu, C., Nagarajan S. (2015) Anthropogenic impact on diazotrophic diversity in the mangrove rhizosphere revealed by nifH pyrosequencing. Front. Microbiol. 6:1172. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01172

Zheng, L., Chen, B., Liu, X., Huang, B., Liu, H., Song, S. (2015) Seasonal variations in the effect of microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. Cont. Shelf. Res. (in press)



Liu, H., Jing, H., Wong, T.H.C. Chen, B. (2014) Co-occurance of phycocyanin- and phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters. Environ. Microbiol. Reports 6(1): 90-99, doi:10.1111/1758-2229.12111

Lai CC, YW Fu, HB Liu, HY Kuo, KW Wang, CH Lin, JH Tai, GTF Wong, KY Lee, TY Chen, Y Yamamoto, MF Chow, Y Kobayashi, JY Ko and FK Shiah. 2014. Distinct bacterial production – DOC – primary production relationships and implications for biogenic C cycling in the South China Sea shelf. Biogeosciences, 11:1-10. Doi:10.5194/bg-11-12014.

Chen, B., Laws, E. A., Liu, H., Huang, B. (2014) Estimating microzooplankton grazing half-saturation constants from dilution experiments with nonlinear feeding kinetics. Limnol. Oceanogr. 59(3):639-644.

Guo, C., Liu, H., Zheng, L., Song, S., Chen, B., Huang, B.(2014) Seasonal and spatial patterns of picophytoplankton growth, grazing and distribution in the East China Sea. Biogeosciences 11: 1847–1862. doi:10.5194/bg-11-1847-2014

Chen, B., Liu, H., Huang, B., Wang, J. (2014) Temperature effects on the growth rate of marine picoplankton. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 505:37-47. doi: 10.3354/meps10773

Suzuki, K., Hattori-Saito, A., Sekiguchi, Y., Nishioka, J., Shigemitsu, M., Isada, T., Liu, H., McKay, R. M. L. (2014) Spatial variability in iron nutritional status of large diatoms in the Sea of Okhotsk with special reference to Amur River discharge. Biogeosciences, 11, 2503–2517, doi:10.5194/bg-11-2503-2014

Guo, C., Yu, J., Zhang, S., Wu, C.-J., Liu, H. (2014) Role of microzooplankton grazing in regulating phytoplankton biomass and community structure in response to atmospheric aerosol input. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 507:69-79

Rocke, E., Liu, H. (2014) Respiration, growth and grazing rates of three ciliate species in hypoxic conditions. Mar. Poll. Bull. 85: 410-417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.04.050

Nishioka, J., Mitsudera, H., Yasuda, I., Liu, H., Nakatsuka, T., Volkov, Y.N. (2014) Preface - Biogeochemical and physical processes in the Sea of Okhotsk and the linkage to the Pacific Ocean. Prog. Oceanogr. 126:1-7.

Chen, B., Huang, B., Xie, Y., Guo, C., Song, S., Li, H., Liu, H. (2014) Bacterial abundance and production in the East China Sea: Seasonal variations and relationships with phytoplankton biomass and production, Acta Oceanologica Sinica 33(9): 166-177.

Xu, J., Sun, M., Shi, Z., Harrison, P.J., Liu, H. (2014) Response of bacterial metabolic activity to riverine dissolved organic carbon and exogenous viruses in estuarine and coastal waters: Implications for CO2 emission. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102490. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102490

Liu, K-K., Kang, C-K., Kobari, T., Liu, H., Rabouille, C., Fennel, K. (2014) Biogeochemistry and ecosystems of continental margins in the western North Pacific Ocean and their interactions and responses to external forcing – an overview and synthesis. Biogeosciences 11:7061-7075. DOI:10.5194/bg-11-7061-2014


Pan, X., Wong, G.T.F., Ho, T.-Y., Shiah, F.-K., Liu, H. (2013) Remote sensing of picophytoplankton distribution in the northern South China Sea. Remote Sensing of Environment 128: 162–175

Rocke, E.R., Jing, H., Liu, H. (2013) Phylogenetic composition and distribution of picoeukaryotes in the hypoxic northwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. MicrobiologyOpen Vol 2, Issue 1, p.130-143, Feb 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mbo3.57/full doi: 10.1002/mbo3.57

Guo, C., Jing, H., Liu, H. (2013) Effect of East Asian aerosol enrichment on bacterial community composition in the South China Sea. J. Plankton Res. 35(3): 485–503 doi:10.1093/plankt/fbt002

Chen, B., Zheng, L., Huang, B., Song, S., Liu, H. (2013) Seasonal and spatial comparisons of phytoplankton growth and mortality rates due to microzooplankton grazing in the northern South China Sea. Biogeosciences 10: 2775-2785, doi:10.5194/bg-10-2775-2013

Xu, J., Jing, H.M., Kong, L.L., Sun, M.M., Harrison, P. J., Liu, H.B. (2013) Effect of seawater-sewage cross-transplants on bacterial metabolism and diversity. Microbial Ecology 66: 60-72. DOI 10.1007/s00248-013-0207-2

Isada, T., Iida, T., Liu, H., Saitoh, S.-I., Nishioka, J., Nakatsuka, T., Suzuki, K. (2013) Influence of Amur River discharge on phytoplankton photophysiology in the Sea of Okhotsk during late summer. JGR-Oceans 118(4): 1995-2013

Chen, M., Liu, H., Li, H. (2013) Mesozooplankton feeding selectivity determines the strength of trophic cascades in marine planktonic food chain: a laboratory simulation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 486:47-58.

Kong, L., Jing H., Kataoka, T., Buchwald, C., Liu, H. (2013) Diversity and spatial distribution of hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene in the OMZ off Costa Rica. PLoS One 8(10): e78275. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078275

Jing, H., Xia, X., Suzuki, K., Liu, H. (2013) Vertical profiles of Bacteria in the tropical and subarctic oceans revealed by pyrosequencing. PLoS One 8(11): e79423. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079423

Xu, J., Jing, H.M., Sun, M.M., Harrison, P. J., Liu, H.B. (2013) Regulation of bacterial metabolic activity by dissolved organic carbon and viruses. J. Geophysic. Res. – Biogeosciences 118: 1–11, doi:10.1002/2013JG002296

Guo, C., Liu, H., Zheng, L., Song, S., Chen, B., Huang, B.(2013) Bottom-up and top-down controls on picoplankton in the East China Sea. Biogeosciences Discussion


Yuan, X.C., Glibert, P.M., Xu, J., Liu, H., Chen, M., Liu, H.B., Yin, K., Harrison, P.J. (2012) Inorganic and organic nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton and bacteria in Hong Kong waters. Estuaries and Coasts, 35:325-334. DOI: 10.1007/s12237-011-9433-3.

Jing, H., Liu, H. (2012) Phylogenetic composition of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in cold eddies of the South China Sea. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 65:207-219. doi: 10.3354/ame01546

Xu, J., Glibert, P.M., Liu, H., Yin, K., Yuan, X., Chen, M., Harrison, P.J. (2012) Nitrogen sources and rates of phytoplankton uptake in different regions of Hong Kong waters in summer. Estuaries and Coasts 35:559–571. DOI 10.1007/s12237-011-9456-9

Sun, M.-M., Sun, J., Qiu, J.-W., Jing, H., Liu, H. (2012) Characterization of the proteomic profiles of the brown tide alga Aureoumbra lagunensis under phosphate- and nitrogen-limiting conditions and of its phosphate limitation-specific protein with alkaline phosphatase activity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78(6):2025-2033.

Chen, B., Landry, M.R., Huang, B., Liu, H. (2012) Does warming enhance the grazing impact of microzooplankton on marine phytoplankton in the ocean? Limnol. Oceanogr. 57(2): 519–526

Guo, C., Yu, J., Ho, T.-Y., Chen, B., Wang, L., Song, S., Kong, L., Liu, H. (2012) Dynamics of phytoplankton community structure in the South China Sea in response to the East Asian aerosol input. Biogeoscience 9, 1519–1536, www.biogeosciences.net/9/1519/2012/doi:10.5194/bg-9-1519-2012

Chen, M., Liu, H. Chen, B. (2012) Effects of dietary essential fatty acids on reproduction rates of a subtropical calanoid copepod, Acartia erythraea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 455: 95–110, doi: 10.3354/meps09685

Jing, H., Liu, H. (2012) Contrasting bacterial dynamics in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters. Estuaries and Coasts 35:976–990, DOI 10.1007/s12237-012-9504-0

Chen, B., Liu, H., Huang, B. (2012) Environmental controlling mechanisms on bacterial abundance in the South China Sea inferred from generalized additive models (GAMs). Journal of Sea Research 72: 69–76, doi:10.1016/j.seares.2012.05.012

Jing, H., Shek, L., Yung, W., Jin, X., Liu, H. (2012) Dynamics of bacterial community composition during degradation of copepod fecal pellets. J. Plankton Res. 34:700-710. doi:10.1093/plankt/fbs043

Hong, L., Wang, C., Zhou, Y., Chen, M., Liu, H., Lin, Z., Song, X. (2012) The distribution of chlorophyll a in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean in austral summer. Acta Oceanol. Sin. 31(5): 146-159 DOI: 10.1007/s13131-012-0244-6

Chen, X., Liu, H., Weinbauer, M., Chen, B., Jiao, N. (2011) Viral dynamics in the surface water of the western South China Sea in summer 2007. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 63:145-160. doi:10.3354/ame01490

Wong, G. T.F., Hong, H., Lin, S., Liu, H., Xue, H. (2011) Upwelling ecosystem in the southern Taiwan Strait. Continental Shelf Research 31: S1-S2.

Chen, M., Chen, B., Harrison, P., Liu, H. (2011) Dynamics of mesozooplankton assemblages in subtropical estuarine and coastal waters: a comparative study of two contrasting sites in Hong Kong. Continental Shelf Research 31: 1075-1086. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2011.03.011

Chen, M., Liu, H. (2011) Laboratory experimental simulation of trophic interactions among omnivorous copepods, heterotrophic dinoflagellates and diatoms. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 403: 65-74.

P. J. Harrison, K. Furuya, P. M. Glibert, J. Xu, H. B. Liu, K. Yin, J. H. W. Lee, D. M. Anderson, R. Gowen and A. R. Al-Azri, et al. (2001) Geographical distribution of red and green Noctiluca scintillans. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 29 (4) 807-831.

Chen B., Wang, L., Song, S., Huang, B., Sun, J., Liu, H. (2011) Comparisons of ultraphytoplankton abundance, size, and biomass between summer and winter in northern South China Sea. Cont. Shelf Res. 31:1527-1540. DOI: 10.1016/j.csr.2011.06.018

Chen, B., Liu, H. (2011) Temporal stability of marine phytoplankton in a subtropical coastal environment. Aquatic Ecology DOI: 10.1007/s10452-011-9365-9

Chen, B., Liu, H. (2011) Unimodal relationship between phytoplankton mass-specific growth rate and size: a reply to the comment by Sal and López-Urrutia (2011). Limnology and Oceanography 56: 1956-1958

Kong, L., Jing, H., Kataoka, T., Sun, J., Liu, H. (2011) Phylogenetic diversity and spatio-temporal distribution of nitrogenase genes (nifH) in the northern South China Sea. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 65:15-27

Xu, J., Lee, J. H. W., Yin, K., Liu, H., Harrison, P.J. (2011) Environmental response to sewage treatment strategies: Hong Kong's experience in long term water quality monitoring. Mar. Poll. Bull. 62: 2275-2287.


Chen, B., Liu, H., Lau, M.T.S. (2010) Grazing and growth responses of a marine oligotrichous ciliate fed with two nanoplankton: does food quality matter for micrograzers. Aquat. Ecol. 44:113- . DOI 10.1007/s10452-009-9264-5

Jing, H., Liu, H., Wong, T., Chen, M., (2010) Impact of mesozooplankton grazing on the microbial community revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 383:39-47.

Ling, Y., Liu, H., Lee, Y-K. (2010) A micro flow cytometry system for study of marine phytoplankton from coastal waters of Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 2010 5th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems. January 20-23, 2010, Xiamen, China, p. 580-583.

Jing, H., Liu, H., Bird, D. F., Wong, T.H.C., Chen, X., Chen, B. (2010) Composition and seasonal variability of picoeukaryote communities at two subtropical coastal sites with contrasting trophic conditions. J. Plankton Res. 32:565-573

Chen, B., Liu, H., (2010) Scaling of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in surface oceans. Limnol. Oceanogr. 55:965-972

Chen, B., Liu, H. (2010) Trophic linkages between grazers and ultraplankton within the microbial food web in subtropical coastal waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 407:43-53.

Liu, H., Chen, M. Suzuki, K., Wong, C.K., Chen, B. (2010) Mesozooplankton selective feeding in subtropical coastal waters revealed by HPLC pigment analysis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 407:111-123.

Shek, L., Liu, H. (2010) Oxygen consumption rates of fecal pellets produced by three coastal copepod species fed with a diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Mar. Poll. Bull. 60:1005-1009

Wu, C.-J., Chiang, K.-P., Liu, H. (2010) Diel feeding pattern and prey selection of mesozooplankton on microplankton community. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 390:134-142.

Xu, J., Yin, K., Liu, H., Lee, J.H.W., Anderson, D.M. Ho, A. Harrison, P.J. (2010) A comparison of eutrophication impacts in two eutropic harbours in Hong Kong with different hydrodynamics. J. Mar. Syst. 83:276-286. Doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.04.002

Harrison, P.J., Xu, J., Yin, K., Lee, J.H.W., Anderson, D. M., Liu, H.B., Ho, A. (2010) Algal blooms and red tides in Hong Kong: Who, when, where and why. Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Harmful Algae 3-7 November 2008, Hong Kong, China, p 49-52

Xu J, Yin K, Ho AYT, Lee JHW, Liu H, Harrison PJ (2010) Role of physical processes in reducing eutrophication impacts: Comparison of Tolo Harbour and Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong. Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Harmful Algae 3-7 November 2008, Hong Kong, China, p 77-79

Gan, J., Lu, Z., Dai, M., Cheung, A.Y.Y., Liu, H., Harrison, P. (2010) Biological response to intensified upwelling over a widened shelf and to a river plume in the northeastern South China Sea: a modeling study. J. Geophysic. Res. 115: C09001, doi:10.1029/2009JC005569

Jing, H., Liu, H., Suzuki, K., Sohrin, R., Nishioka, J. (2010) Community compositions of Bacteria and Archaea in the Sea of Okhotsk during summer. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 61:191-204


Chen, B., Liu, H., Wang, Z. (2009) Trophic interactions within the microbial food web in the South China Sea revealed by size-fraction method. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 368: 59-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.10.012

Liu, W., Li, J., Gao, S., Shao, C., Gong, J., Lin, X., Liu, H., Song, W. (2009) Morphological studies and molecular data on a new marine ciliate, Apokeronopsis sinica n. sp. (Ciliophora: Urostylida), from the South China Sea. Zootaxa 2005:57-66.

Liu, H., Suzuki, K., Nishioka, J., Sohrin, R., Nakatsuka, T. (2009) Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the Sea of Okhotsk during late summer of 2006. Deep-Sea Res. I 56: 561-570.

Dagg, M. J., Strom, S., Liu, H. (2009) High feeding rates on large particles by Neocalanus flemingeri and N. plumchrus, and consequences for phytoplankton community structure in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I 56:716-726.

Jing, H., Zhang, R., Pointing, S.B., Liu, H., Qian, P. (2009) Genetic diversity and temporal variation of marine Synechococcus community in subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 55(3):311-318.

Chen, B., Liu, H., Landry, M.R., Chen, M, Sun, J., Shek L., Chen, X., Harrison, P. J. (2009) Estuarine nutrient loading affects phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing at two contrasting sites in Hong Kong coastal waters. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 379:77-90.

Chen, B., Liu, H., Landry, M.R., Dai, M., Huang, B., Sun, J. (2009) Close coupling between phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the western South China Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54(4):1084-1097.

Jing, H., Liu, H., Suzuki, K. (2009) Phylogenetic diversity of marine Synechococcus in the Sea of Okhotsk. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 56:55-63.

Isada, T., Suzuki, K., Liu, H., Nishioka, J., Nakatsuka, T. (2009) Primary productivity and photosynthetic features of phytoplankton in the Sea of Okhotsk during late summer. PICES Scientific Report No. 36: 72-75

Xu, J., Yin, K., Lee, J., Liu, H., Ho, A., Harrison, P. (2009) Long term and seasonal changes in nutrients, phytoplankton biomass, and dissolved oxygen in Deep Bay, Hong Kong. Estuaries and Coasts 33: 399-416. doi: 10.1007/s12237-009-9213-5.


Liu, H., Dagg, M. J., Napp, J., Sato, R. (2008) Grazing impact of Neocalanus spp. compared to other mesozooplankton in the coastal and shelf water of the Gulf of Alaska. ICES Journal of Marine Science 65:351-360.

Dagg, M., Sato, R., Liu, H., Bianchi, T., Green, R., Powell, R. (2008) Microbial food web contributions to bottom water hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Continental Shelf Research 28:1127-1137.

Harrison, P.J., Yin, K., Gan, J., Liu, H., Lee, J.H.W. (2008) Physical-biological coupling in the Pearl River Estuary. Continental Shelf Res. 28: 1405-1415.

Long, H., Liu, H., Liu, W., Miao, M., Hu, X., Lin, X., Song, W. (2008) Two new ciliates from Hong Kong coastal water: Orthodonella sinica n. sp. and Apokeronopsis wrighti n. sp. (Protozoa: Ciliophora). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 55:321-330.

Liu, H., Chen, B. (2008) The importance of picophytoplankton and its top-down control in marine environments. Ecological Science 27: 303-309.

Shen, Z., Lin, X., Long, H., Miao, M., Liu, H., Al-Rasheid, K. A. S., Song, W. (2008) Morphology and small subunit rDNA gene sequence of Pseudoamphisiella quadrinucleata n. sp. (Ciliophora, Urostylida) from the South China Sea. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 55:510-514.

Huang, B., Liu, Y., Xiang, W., Tian, H., Liu, H., Cao, Z., Hong, H. (2008) Grazing impact of microzooplankton on phytoplankton in Xiamen Bay using pigment-specific dilution technique. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 27: 147-162


Jing, H., Liu, H., Pointing, S.B. (2007) Identification and characterization of thermophilic Synechococcus spp. isolates from Asian geothermal springs. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 53(4):480-487.

Liu, H., Chang, J., Tseng, C.-M., Wen, L.-S., Liu, K.-K. (2007) Seasonal variability of picoplankton in the northern South China Sea at the SEATS station. Deep-Sea Res. II 54:1602-1616.

Liu, K.K., Chen, Y.-J., Tseng, C.-M., Lin, I-I, Liu, H.-B, Snidvongs, A. (2007) The significance of phytoplankton photo-adaptation and benthic-pelagic coupling to primary production in the South China Sea: Observations and numerical investigations. Deep-Sea Res. II 54: 1546-1574

Dagg, M., Liu, H., Thomas, A. (2006) Effects of mesoscale phytoplankton variability on the copepods Neocalanus flemingeri and N. plumchrus in the coastal Gulf of Alaska. Deep-Sea Res. I 53:321-332.


Liu, H., Dagg, M.J., Wu, C.-J.and Chiang, K.-P. (2005) Mesozooplankton consumption of microplankton in the Mississippi River plume, with special emphasis on planktonic ciliates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 286:133-144.

Suzuki, K., Hinuma, A., Saito, H., Kiyosawa, H., Liu, H., Saino, T. and Tsuda, A. (2005) Response of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in the northwest subarctic Pacific to in situ iron fertilization as estimated by HPLC pigment analysis and flow cytometry. Progress in Oceanography 64:167-187.

Liu, H., Dagg. M. J., Strom, S. (2005) Grazing by the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus on the microbial foodweb in the coastal Gulf of Alaska. J. Plankton Res. 27:647-662.

Dagg, M.J., Bianchi, T.S., Breed, G.A., Cai.,W-J., Duan, S., Liu, H., McKee, B.A., Powell, R.T., Stewart, C.M. (2005) Biogeochemical characteristics of the lower Mississippi River, USA, during June 2003. Estuaries 28:664-674